The almond is a deciduous tree with white to pale pink flowers. The trees are small to medium sized yet commercial cultivars can be grafted onto a different root-stock to produce smaller trees.
Avocado is a multi-stemmed tropical evergreen tree that is native to Central America and South America.
The blackberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family. Blackberry shrubs need ample sun and water for optimal development. Blackberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world. What distinguishes the blackberry from its raspberry relatives is whether or not the torus (receptacle or stem) stays with the fruit. When picking a blackberry fruit, the torus stays with the fruit while with a raspberry, the torus remains on the plant, leaving a hollow core in the raspberry fruit. Mexico is the leading producer of blackberries, with nearly the entire crop being produced for export into the off-season fresh markets in North America and Europe. In the US, Oregon is the leading commercial blackberry producer.
Blueberries are a (Cyanococcus vaccinium) group of perennial flowering plants with blue or purple berries.
Bok Choy, sometimes known as pak choi or pok choi is a variety of Chinese cabbage that do not form heads. Bok choy have green leaf blades with light green with bulbous bases, reminiscent of mustard greens. Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) can be a particularly damaging pest because the larvae attack all stages of plant growth. The larvae attack the growing points on young plants (stunting growth and decreasing yield), they will also chew small holes on the underside of mature leaves. Damaged or contaminated Bok choy, with either larvae frass or larvae, are unmarketable.
Broccoli is a vegetable plant in the cabbage family. Broccoli produces a large flowering green head branching out from a thick stalk which is usually light green.
Brussel sprout is a leafy green brassicae comprising several cultivars of Gemmifera. Brussel sprouts are grown for their edible buds which grow in helical patterns along the side of the stalks and resemble miniature cabbages.
Cabbage, closely related to broccoli, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts and Savoy cabbage, is a member of the genus Brassica. .It is grown as an annual vegetable crop for its densely leaved heads which are either white, green or purple.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. As the wave of legalization advances, this budding industry is adopting the high standards of consumer-product makers to meet regulatory requirements. Integrated pest management offers solutions for this crop than traditional pest management cannot.
Cauliflower is one of several vegetable cultivars of the Brassica oleracea species. It is grown as an annual plant that reproduces by seed. The most common color of cauliflower is white but it can also be orange, green or purple.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs of the Rutaceae family that produce fruit such as oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits and pomelos.
The coffea plants are small evergreen trees or shrubs often with multiple stems and smooth leaves that belong to the Rubiaceae family. The trees can live for 20–30 years.
Cole crops are plants that belong to the Brassica family and are related to the wild cabbage. Some of the vegetables included in this group are broccoli, cabbage, Brussel sprouts and cauliflower. These cultivars are grown as annual vegetable crops. They are often grown as an outdoor winter crop in warmer regions.
Courgettes and zucchinni are the same plant and part of the gourd family. Zucchini is the common term used in American English speaking countries, while courgette is the more common term among French and British English speaking people.
Cucumbers belong to the Cucurbitaceae gourd family.
Cucurbits, also referred to as the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) include squash, pumpkin, cucumber, gourd, watermelon, and cantaloupe. They are vegetables, fruit and sometimes ornamentals, trailing or climbing plants.
In deciduous trees (apples, pears, stone fruit, kiwi, almonds…), pests can cause the fruit to be unfit for the market. Boring insects, which prefer to eat directly upon the tree’s nutrient carrying layers (the cambium and xylem) cause more serious damage. This often kills the tree within a season or two. Early detection of tree boring insects is absolutely vital.
Eggplant is a plant species of the nightshade family Solanaceae.
Garlic is a perennial flowering plant with an erect stem growing from a bulb. The bulb contains layers of thin leaf sheathes that encloses the clove.
Kiwi is a deciduous fruit tree natives to Southeast Asia. Its fruit is oval and can be greenish brown or copper colored, covered with fuzz while the pulp is either green or yellow with numerous back seeds.
The leek is a vegetable that produces a long bundle of cullindrical leaf sheaths. The edible portion of the leek are the white base of the leaves.
Hop, or hops (Humulus lupulus) is a member of the Cannabaceae family used in the brewing industry to preserve and flavor the beer. Hops are flowering perennials trained to grow on trellises containing strings or wires that support the plants.
Macadamia is an evergreen genus of four species. Only 3 out of the four( Macadamia integrifolia, Macadamia ternifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla ) are of commercial importance (the 4th species M. janseni produces poisonous nuts).
South Africa has been the world’s largest producer of macadamia since the 2010’s.
Melons belong to the Cucumis melois family. There are many types and varieties of melons.
Over more than 20 species of mushrooms are currently commercially cultivated. World consumption of button mushrooms, oyster, enokitake, wood ear, shiitake and edible mushrooms as a whole is raising. Mushroom production represents one of the best examples in agriculture where pests can be controlled without the use of chemicals.
Mustard comprise several plants in the genera Brassica and Sinapis (Brassicaceae). While the mustard seed is used as a spice or pressed to make mustard oil, the edible leaves can be eaten as greens. There are many species of mustard: Mild white mustard (Sinapis alba), Oriental mustard (Brassica juncea), black mustard (Brassica nigra).
Juglans regia are deciduous trees that can attain heights of 25-35 meters (80-120 feet). They are also known as English walnut, Persian walnut and Madeira walnut. These trees grow best in rich, deep soil with full sun and long summers
Olive trees are evergreen and native to the Mediterranean, Asia and Africa.
The olive fruit fly (Dacus oleae or Bactrocera oleae) which lays its eggs in the olive is one of the most serious pests. The area surrounding the puncture, rots, becomes brown, and takes a bitter taste, making the olive unfit for eating or for oil.
BioBee’s approach to IPM is multifaceted, employing multiple strategies to achieve the optimal result. In addition to the gradual release of host-specific beneficial insects, BioBee recommends that growers use selective “soft” chemical pesticides. This strategy helps growers transition from using “harsh” chemicals, which are dangerous to the human population and the environment and have long-lasting residues. It has also been proven to increase marketable crop yield, and as a result, increases profits.
The onion (Allium cepa) is a widely cultivated species of Allium, grown for its edible bulb. The bulbs are formed by underground stems surrounded by modified leaves that cover a central bud at the stem tip. There are three color varieties: yellow/brown (sweeter flavor), red/-purple (sharper flavor) and white onions (mild flavor).
Palm trees belong to the botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees. Around 2600 species of palm trees are known, growing in tropical and subtropical climates. Some of the common pests of palm tree species are the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), the red palm mite (Raoiella indica) and the palm seed beetle (Caryobruchus gleditsiae).
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a perennial vigorous vine which will cling with its tendrils to just about any support. Subtropical, it prefers a frost-free climate and does not grow well in intense heat.
Pest occurrence varies with location and season, the carmine spider mites, red scale and the red flat mites are usually abundant throughout the year while fruit flies are usually active when the passion fruit is still young.
Pomegranate is a deciduous shrub or small tree. Drought-tolerant and can be grown in dry areas.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of plants species in the genus Rubus subg. Idaeobatus of the rose family. Raspberries shrubs need ample sun and water for optimal development. Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world
Roses belong to the Rosaceae family, and count more than three hundred species and over thousands of different cultivars. Roses are used as ornamental plants, cut flowers and for other commercial applications (perfumes, cooking, cosmetics and medicine).
Strawberries are grown in open-field and in tunnels or greenhouses, which are utilized to extend the growing season. Strawberries are particularly prone to aphids infestations (specifically, Aphis gossypii, Myzus persica, and Myzus nicotianae) as well as red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and strawberry spider mite (Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov & Nicolski) infestations.
Sweet corn, also called sugar corn or pole corn is a maize variety with a high sugar content often grown for human consumption. Unlike traditional varieties of corn, sweet corn is harvested when still immature (milk stage) and eaten as a vegetable, instead of as a grain.
Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum), also known as bell peppers or capsicum. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors: red, yellow, orange, green, white, and purple.
Table grapes are grapes intended for consumption while fresh, as opposed to grapes grown for wine production, juice production, or for drying into raisins.
The tomato is the edible berry of the Solanum lycopersicum plant.
Turf & grass
Turf (the upper stratum of soil bound by grass and plant roots into a thick mat) and grasses are cultivated and used in lawns, parks, green urban areas, golf courses, race tracks, a variety of athletic and sport fields as well as private gardens.
Some vegetables are perennials but most are annuals and biennials, usually harvested within a year of sowing or planting.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is a flowering plant species of the Cucurbitaceae family, with more than 1,000 varieties.