American serpentine leaf miner, tomato leaf miner, pea leaf miner.
Liriomyza trifolii, Liriomyza bryoniae and Liriomyza huidobrensis.
Nature of damage
Punctures caused by females during the feeding and oviposition processes can result in a stippled appearance on foliage, especially at the leaf tip and along the leaf margins. However, the major form of damage is the mining of leaves by larvae, which results in destruction of leaf mesophyll. The mine becomes noticeable about three to four days after oviposition and becomes larger in size as the larva matures. The pattern of mining is irregular. Both leaf mining and stippling can greatly depress the level of photosynthesis in the plant. Extensive mining also causes premature leaf drop, which can result in lack of shading and sun scalding of fruit. Wounding of the foliage also allows entry of bacterial and fungal diseases. The leafminer is capable of breeding throughout the year especially in heated greenhouses. It is an extremely virulent pest and when in outbreak proportions it may severely disrupt photosynthesis in the plant leaves that eventually dry out and defoliate.
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